Vanwege het Corona virus is het nog onduidelijk hoe het onderwijs precies verzorgd gaat worden. Minimum number of participants is 3, maximum is Lucius Caelius Firmianus, better known as Lactantius, lived in turbulent times. Born ca. Shortly after , when the persecutions were over and the Empire was making peace with the Christians, Constantine called Lactantius to Trier to serve as tutor for his son Crispus.

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Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius c. His most important work is the Institutiones Divinae "The Divine Institutes" , an apologetic treatise intended to establish the reasonableness and truth of Christianity to pagan critics. Lactantius, a Latin -speaking North African of Berber origin, [2] [3] [4] [5] was not born into a Christian family.

He was a pupil of Arnobius who taught at Sicca Veneria , an important city in Numidia. In his early life, he taught rhetoric in his native town, which may have been Cirta in Numidia, where an inscription mentions a certain "L.

Caecilius Firmianus". Lactantius had a successful public career at first. At the request of the Roman Emperor Diocletian , he became an official professor of rhetoric in Nicomedia ; the voyage from Africa is described in his poem Hodoeporicum now lost [7].

There, he associated in the imperial circle with the administrator and polemicist Sossianus Hierocles and the pagan philosopher Porphyry ; he first met Constantine , and Galerius , whom he cast as villain in the persecutions.

As a Latin rhetor in a Greek city, he subsequently lived in poverty according to Saint Jerome and eked out a living by writing until Constantine I became his patron. The persecution forced him to leave Nicomedia, perhaps re-locating to North Africa. The Emperor Constantine appointed the elderly Lactantius Latin tutor to his son Crispus in who was probably years old at the time. Crispus was put to death by order of his father Constantine I in , but when Lactantius died and under what circumstances are unknown.

Like so many of the early Christian authors, Lactantius depended on classical models. The early humanists called him the "Christian Cicero " Cicero Christianus.

He wrote apologetic works explaining Christianity in terms that would be palatable to educated people who still practiced the traditional religions of the Empire. He defended Christian beliefs against the criticisms of Hellenistic philosophers.

His Divinae Institutiones "Divine Institutes" were an early example of a systematic presentation of Christian thought. He was considered somewhat heretical after his death, but Renaissance humanists took a renewed interest in him, more for his elaborately rhetorical Latin style than for his theology. His works were copied in manuscript several times in the 15th century and were first printed in by the Germans Arnold Pannartz and Konrad Sweynheim at the Abbey of Subiaco.

This edition was the first book printed in Italy to have a date of printing, as well as the first use of a Greek alphabet font anywhere, which was apparently produced in the course of printing, as the early pages leave Greek text blank.

It was probably the fourth book ever printed in Italy. Like many writers in the first few centuries of the early church, Lactantius took a premillennialist view, holding that the second coming of Christ will precede a millennium or a thousand-year reign of Christ on earth.

According to Charles E. None of the fathers thus far had been more verbose on the subject of the millennial kingdom than Lactantius or more particular in describing the times and events preceding and following.

He held to the literalist interpretation of the millennium, that the millennium originates with the second advent of Christ and marks the destruction of the wicked, the binding of the devil and the raising of the righteous dead. He depicted Jesus reigning with the resurrected righteous on this earth during the seventh thousand years prior to the general judgment.

In the end, the devil, having been bound during the thousand years, is loosed; the enslaved nations rebel against the righteous, who hide underground until the hosts, attacking the Holy City, are overwhelmed by fire and brimstone and mutual slaughter and buried altogether by an earthquake: rather unnecessarily, it would seem, since the wicked are thereupon raised again to be sent into eternal punishment. Next, God renews the earth, after the punishment of the wicked, and the Lord alone is thenceforth worshiped in the renovated earth.

Lactantius confidently stated that the beginning of the end would be the fall, or breakup, of the Roman Empire. Attempts to determine the time of the End were viewed as in contradiction to Acts "It is not for you to know the times or seasons that the Father has established by his own authority," [16] and Mark "But of that day or hour, no one knows, neither the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Early Christian author. For the 4th-century author, see Lactantius Placidus. Nouvelles Editions Latines. Editions Complexe. Latin Literature: A History. Baltimore: JHU Press. Retrieved August 29, In Herbermann, Charles ed. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 26 February Fletcher The Works of Lactantius.

Retrieved World Digital Library. The Odes of Solomon. Oxford: Oxford UP, , pp. Social and political philosophy. Jurisprudence Philosophy and economics Philosophy of education Philosophy of history Philosophy of love Philosophy of sex Philosophy of social science Political ethics Social epistemology.

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