Print Send Add Share. Army Intelligence Center : Fort Huachuca. Notes Dates or Sequential Designation: Print began with vol. Exercise Combined Resolve V trains the U. Armys regionally aligned force to the U.
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Bookshop Donate. Training Circular No. Keys to understanding the urban environment Figure Urban layout patterns Figure Funnel-fan effect Figure The multidimensional urban battlefield Figure A Example pattern analysis plot sheet Figure A Example link diagram Figure A Example association matrix Figure A Example relationship matrix Figure A Example activities matrix Figure A Example time event chart Figure A Perception assessment matrix Figure A Population status overlay Figure A Example roof cover overlay Figure A Example of imagery and urban models Tables Table Urban pattern effects Table Street patterns and effects Table 1 Some key urban structural types Table Example information requirements for individual buildings Table Example information requirements for populations Table Example information requirements for transportation infrastructure—airfields Table Example information requirements for transportation infrastructure—helicopter landing zones Table Example information requirements for transportation infrastructure—roadways Table Example information requirements for transportation infrastructure—railroads Table Example information requirements for transportation infrastructure—bridges Table Example information requirements for transportation infrastructure—subways Table Example information requirements for transportation infrastructure—ports and harbors Table Example information requirements for communications infrastructure Table Example intelligence requirements for energy infrastructure—general information and power plant layout Table Example intelligence requirements for energy infrastructure—petroleum and natural gas facilities Table Example information requirements for water and waste disposal infrastructure Table Example information requirements for resources and material production infrastructure Table Example information requirements for a food distribution infrastructure Table Example information requirements for medical infrastructure Table Example of information requirements for law enforcement and firefighting infrastructures Table Example information requirements for a crisis management and civil defense infrastructure Table Example information requirements for a subterranean infrastructure Table Example information requirements for conventional military and paramilitary forces Table Example information requirements for insurgent and guerrilla forces Table Example information requirements for terrorist threats Table Example information requirements for criminal threats Table Example information requirements for information operations threats Table Basic intelligence consideration factors in the urban environment Preface TC The principal audience for TC It can also be used by commanders, staffs, and intelligence personnel at all echelons.
TC See ATP Commanders, staffs, and subordinates ensure their decisions and actions comply with applicable U. Commanders at all levels ensure their Soldiers operate in accordance with the law of war and the rules of engagement. See FM Selected joint and Army terms and definitions appear in both the glossary and the text.
For definitions shown in the text, the term is italicized and the number of the proponent publication follows the definition. The proponent of TC Army Intelligence Center of Excellence. As urbanization has changed the demographic landscape, potential enemies recognize the inherent danger and complexity of this environment to the attacker. Some may view it as their best chance to negate the technological and firepower advantages of modernized opponents.
Given the global population trends and the likely strategies and tactics of future threats, Army forces will likely conduct operations in, around, and over urban areas—not as a matter of fate, but as a deliberate choice linked to national security objectives and strategy.
Stability operations—where keeping the social structure, economic structure, and political support institutions intact and functioning or having to almost simultaneously provide the services associated with those structures and institutions is the primary mission—may dominate urban operations.
This requires specific and timely intelligence support, placing a tremendous demand on the intelligence warfighting functions for operations, short-term planning, and long-term planning. Providing intelligence support to operations in the complex urban environment can be quite challenging.
It may at first seem overwhelming. The amount of detail required for operations in urban environments, along with the large amounts of varied information required to provide intelligence support to these operations, can be daunting. Intelligence professionals must be flexible and adaptive in applying doctrine including tactics, techniques, and procedures based on the mission variables: mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and civil considerations METT-TC.
As with operations in any environment, a key to providing good intelligence support in the urban environment lies in identifying and focusing on the critical information required for each specific mission. The complexity of the urban environment requires focused intelligence. A comprehensive framework must be established to support the commander's requirements while managing the vast amount of information and intelligence required for urban operations.
By addressing the issues and considerations listed in this manual, the commander, G-2 or S-2, and intelligence analyst will be able to address most of the critical aspects of the urban environment and identify both the gaps in the intelligence collection effort and those systems and procedures that may answer them. This will assist the commander in correctly identifying enemy actions so that Army forces can focus on the enemy and seize the initiative while maintaining an understanding of the overall situation.
The manual has been reformatted to comply with publication standards established under Doctrine In addition, it contains the following changes: Terminology has been updated. References have added or updated as appropriate.
The descriptions of civil affairs and military information support operations in chapter 3 have been revised. Chapter 4 has been removed. See ADRP for an overview of the intelligence disciplines. For doctrine on an intelligence discipline see the appropriate Army techniques publication. The example of a civil affairs assessment has been removed from appendix A.
Appendix B has been removed. Tables portraying information on threat weapons effects are available in command publications posted on the Intelligence Knowledge Network Web site.
The special considerations that must be taken into account in any operation in an urban environment go well beyond the uniqueness of the urban terrain. JP identifies three distinguishing characteristics of the urban environment: physical terrain, population, and infrastructure. Also, FM identifies three key overlapping and interdependent components of the urban environment: terrain natural and manmade , society, and the supporting infrastructure.
Normally the factors used in the planning and execution of tactical military missions are evaluated in terms of the mission variables: METT-TC. Due to the importance of civil considerations the letter "C" in METT-TC in urban operations, those factors are discussed first in this manual. Civil considerations are the influence of manmade infrastructure, civilian institutions, and attitudes and activities of the civilian leaders, populations, and organizations within an area of operations on the conduct of military operations ADRP They are a factor in all types of military operations: offense, defense, stability, and civil support.
If the military's mission is to support civil authorities, civil considerations define the mission. An appreciation of civil considerations and the ability to analyze their impact on operations enhances several aspects of urban operations—among them, the selection of objectives; location, movement, and control of forces; use of weapons; and force protection measures.
S tructures. C apabilities. O rganizations. P eople. E vents. Civil considerations, in conjunction with the components of the urban environment, provide a useful structure for intelligence personnel to begin to focus their intelligence preparation of the battlefield and organize the huge undertaking of providing intelligence to operations in the urban environment. They should not be considered as separate entities but rather as interdependent. Understanding this interrelationship of systems provides focus for the intelligence analyst and allows the commander a greater understanding of the urban area in question.
See figure on page Terrain in the urban environment is complex and challenging. It possesses all the characteristics of the natural landscape, coupled with manmade construction, resulting in a complicated and fluid environment that influences the conduct of military operations in unique ways.
Military intelligence professional bulletin ( 04-2016 )