XAT introduced the pattern of differential marking this year. There were questions with marks ranging from 1 to 5. There were questions in the paper worth marks. Each question had 5 options.
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Enroll here. Free Content. College Counselling. Of the several features of the Toyota Production System that have been widely studied, most important is the mode of governance of the shop - floor at Toyota. It is able to retain the character of a learning organization. In fact, many observers characterize it as a community of scientists carrying out several small experiments simultaneously.
The design of the operating procedure is the key. Every principal must find an expression in the operating procedure — that is how it has an effect in the domain of action. This inter - temporal change or flexibility of the specification or operating procedure is done at the lowest level of the organization; i.
One implication of this arrangement is that system design can no longer be rationally optimal and standardized across the organization. It is quite common to find different work norms in contiguous assembly lines, because each might have faced a different set of problems and devised different counter - measures to tackle it. Design of the coordinating process that essentially imposes the discipline that is required in large - scale complex manufacturing systems is therefore customized to variations in man - machine context of the site of action.
It evolves through numerous points of negotiation throughout the organization. It implies then that the higher levels of the hierarchy do not exercise the power of the fiat in setting work rules, for such work rules are no longer a standard set across the whole organization.
It might be interesting to go through the basic Toyota philosophy that underlines its system designing practices. It did not embrace the concept of a standardized product that can be cheap by giving up variations. Preserving consumption variety was seen, in fact, as one mode of serving society. It is interesting to note that the articulation of the Toyota philosophy was made around roughly the same time that the Fordist system was establishing itself in the US automotive industry.
What can be best defended as the asset which Toyota model of production leverages to give the vast range of models in a defect - free fashion? Which of the following can be best defended as a pre-condition for the Toyota type of production system to work? Workers have significant control rights over the design of work rules that allow worker skills and ingenuity to continuously search for novel micro - solutions using information that often sticks to the local micro - context of the work.
Managers have significant control rights over the design of work rules that allow worker skills and ingenuity to continuously search for novel micro - solutions around micro - information that often sticks to the local micro - context of the work. Work rules enable the workers to report problems faced at the shop - floor to specialised personnel who set up experiments to replicate the conditions.
This allows the specialists to come up with solutions that are rigorously tested in experimental conditions. Toyota as an organisation has extensive networks with different specialists who are subject matter experts in different fields. These networks allow problems to be resolved in the most advanced manner, enabling Toyota to beat the competition. This extensive testing is done by workers who double up as a community of scientists experimenting to develop the most advanced product.
Without such variation allowed, rights of manager to design work - rules would have made very little sense, making the company similar to Ford. If similarities were imposed, rights of workers to experiment with work - rules would have made very little sense.
Standardisation of work rules is only justified when the investments in plants are huge and experimenting with the work rules would be detrimental to the efficiency of the plants. With standardisation of processes, right of the workers in design of work - rules made sense.
The option that best fills the blanks in the above sentence would be:. Perhaps our current science over - estimates the likelihood of extraterrestrial intelligence evolving. Or, perhaps, evolved technical intelligence has some deep tendency to be self - limiting, even self - exterminating.
After Hiroshima, some suggested that any aliens bright enough to make colonizing space ships would be bright enough to make thermonuclear bombs, and would use them on each other sooner or later. I suggest a different, even darker solution to the Paradox. Once they turn inwards to chase their shiny pennies of pleasure, they lose the cosmic plot.
The fundamental problem is that an evolved mind must pay attention to indirect cues of biological fitness, rather than tracking fitness itself. This was a key insight of evolutionary psychology in the early s; although evolution favours brains that tend to maximize fitness as measured by numbers of great - grandkids , no brain has capacity enough to do so under every possible circumstance.
As a result, brains must evolve shortcuts: fitness - promoting tricks, cons, recipes and heuristics that work, on an average, under ancestrally normal conditions. Fitness - faking technology tends to evolve much faster than our psychological resistance to it. Teens today must find their way through a carnival of addictively fitness - faking entertainment products. The traditional staples of physical, mental and social development - athletics, homework dating - are neglected.
The few young people with the self - control to pursue the meritocratic path often get distracted at the last minute. Around , most inventions concerned physical reality and in focus shifted to virtual entertainment. Today we narrow - cast human - interest stories to each other, rather than broadcasting messages of universal peace and progress to other star systems. Maybe the bright aliens did the same. I suspect that a certain period of fitness - faking narcissism is inevitable after any intelligent life evolves.
This is the Great Temptation for any technological species — to shape their subjective reality to provide the cues of survival and reproductive success without the substance. Most bright alien species probably go extinct gradually, allocating more time and resources to their pleasures and less to their children.
Heritable variation in personality might allow some lineages to resist the Great Temptation and last longer. They wait patiently for our fitness - faking narcissism to go extinct. Those practical - minded breeders will inherit the Earth as like - minded aliens may have inherited a few other planets. When they finally achieve contacts, it will not be a meeting of novel - readers and game - players.
It will be a meeting of dead - serious super - parents who congratulate each other on surviving not just the Bomb, but the Xbox. Among the following options, which one represents the most important concern raised in the passage? Which among the following would be the best possible explanation for the lack of contact between human beings and aliens? Sign in Please select an account to continue using cracku. It is able to retain the character of a learning organization In fact, many observers characterize it as a community of scientists carrying out several small experiments simultaneously.
Question 1 Report. A Large scale complex manufacturing systems. Loans taken by the company from banks and financial institutions. Ability of the workers to evolve solutions to problems. Skill and charisma of the top leadership. View Solution. Question 2 Report. Existence of powerful management to create unique strategies.
Cordial worker - management relations to have industrial peace. High management involvement towards problems identified by workers. Question 3 Report.
Based on the above passage, which of the following statements is best justified? A Workers have significant control rights over the design of work rules that allow worker skills and ingenuity to continuously search for novel micro - solutions using information that often sticks to the local micro - context of the work.
Question 4 Report. A Without such variation allowed, rights of manager to design work - rules would have made very little sense, making the company similar to Ford.
Instructions For the following questions answer them individually. Question 5 Report. A honed, insights, mind, distinguished.
Question 6 Report. A in; to; it. Question 7 Report. A if; under; on. Question 8 Report. Pick the odd one out:. A wisdom; folly. Instructions Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers that follow. Question 9 Report. A Extraterrestrial life and its impact on human beings. Lack of interest in developing proper fitness. Short - term pleasure seeking behaviour. Technological advancement and extinction of intelligence.
Tendency of brain to develop shortcuts. Question 10 Report. A Overestimation of the technological capability of aliens. Thermonuclear bombs might have destroyed all aliens. Colonisation of space is impossible to achieve.
Aliens have become self - centred and pleasure seeking. Login to Download PDF. Register with. Register Now.
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