Liezl H. Ball I ; Theo J. Bothma II. The Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek is a prototype e-dictionary of Afrikaans fixed expressions developed with the intention to test the functionalities of the e-dictionary.

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Liezl H. Ball I ; Theo J. Bothma II. The Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek is a prototype e-dictionary of Afrikaans fixed expressions developed with the intention to test the functionalities of the e-dictionary.

This dictionary is based on the function theory of lexicography. The e-dictionary makes use of various technologies. When digital tools are developed it is important to consider the usability of the tool. Usability evaluation was done on the Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek to determine with what success it can be used.

Discount usability methods, viz. This article reports on the findings from the usability tests which are discussed under the categories of content, information architecture, navigation, access searching and browsing , help, customisation and the use of innovative technologies to manage data in e-dictionaries for search and display. The usability evaluation showed that the users did not always use the e-dictionary as the designers intended.

Various recommendations are made to the designers of the Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek, as well as for the design of e-dictionaries in general. Recommendations appropriate to e-dictionaries in general are made regarding usability evaluation, information architecture, searching in e-dic-tionaries, the data that can be included in e-dictionaries and training of users of e-dictionaries.

Keywords : e-dictionaries, online dictionaries, electronic dictionaries, usability evaluation, usability tests, discount usability, dictionary literacy. Die Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek is 'n prototipe e-woordeboek van Afrikaanse vaste uitdrukkings wat ontwikkel is met die doel om die funksionaliteit van die ewoordeboek te toets.

Die woordeboek is gebaseer op die funksieteorie van leksikografie. Wanneer digitale werktuie ontwikkel word is dit belangrik om die bruikbaarheid van die tuig te oorweeg. Bruikbaarheidsevaluering is op die Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek gedoen om te bepaal met watter mate van sukses dit gebruik kan word. Die metodes van afslag-bruikbaarheidsevaluering, naamlik heuristiese evaluering en bruikbaarheidstoetsing is gebruik. Die bruikbaarheidsevaluering het gewys dat die gebruikers nie altyd die e-woordeboek gebruik het soos die ontwerpers bedoel het nie.

Verskeie aanbevelings is gemaak vir die ontwerpers van die Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek, so wel as vir die ontwerp van e-woordeboeke in die algemeen. Aanbevelings toepaslik vir e-woordeboeke in die algemeen is ook gemaak oor bruikbaarheidsevaluering, inligtingargitektuur, soek in e-woordeboeke, die data wat in e-woordeboeke ingesluit kan word en die opleiding van gebruikers van e-woordeboeke.

Sleutelwoorde: e-woordeboeke, aanlyn woordeboeke, elektroniese woordeboeke, bruikbaarheidsevaluering, bruikbaarheidstoetsing, afslag-bruikbaarheidsevaluering, woordeboekgeletterheid. There are many exciting opportunities that technology brings to the field of lexicography. In the first place, much more data can be included in an e-dictionary.

This has many advantages; for instance, e-dictionaries can include or link to more data De Schryver , multimedia can be incorporated Lew or words can be written out and do not need to be abbreviated De Schryver Information technology also offers many advantages in terms of access to data; for instance, the speed with which data can be retrieved is a considerable advantage Verlinde and Peeters and various search features can be included to enable more efficient search Lew , ; Verlinde and Peeters Bothma also suggests various modern technologies that could be used to enhance e-dictionaries, such as annotations, linked data, filtering and recommendations.

Technology can also allow e-dictionaries to be customised to the extent that it only gives information that is relevant in a specific situation. For example, a person who is writing a text needs different information than a person who is reading or a person who needs detailed background information about an item. This idea is formalised in the function theory of lexicography see, for example, Bergenholtz ; Bergenholtz and Bergenholtz ; Bergenholtz, Bothma and Gouws ; Bergenholtz and Gouws ; Bergenholtz and Tarp ; Nielsen ; Tarp , , Usability can be seen as "the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use" ISO Usability becomes more important as products become more complex and can be critical to the success of a product Tullis and Albert Usability evaluation is the process where data about how users will use or do use a product are gathered and whether it is suitable and acceptable to users Preece, Rogers and Sharp The usability evaluation method must be applicable to the product and the environment that the product will be used in; for example, products that will be employed in dangerous environments should ultimately be tested in real-life settings, not only in laboratories Shneiderman and Plaisant Discount usability is an approach where simplified methods are used to evaluate a product Nielsen 17; Nielsen Nielsen suggests that excellent results can be obtained if only a few participants are used in usability testing.

About five participants are enough to point out the main usability problems Nielsen ; ; a. Furthermore, in discount usability, experts are used to conduct heuristic evaluations and prototypes, rather than complete systems are evaluated Nielsen It has also been argued that sophisticated facilities are not needed Preece, Rogers and Sharp ; Nielsen b. There are many different aspects that a usability evaluation can assess. Some of the aspects that can be evaluated are navigation e.

Calisir et al. Hasan, Morris and Probets , aesthetics and design problems e. Hasan, Morris and Probets ; Neilson and Wilson ; search features Hasan, Morris and Probets ; task completion effectiveness e. Hamel ; Molich et al. Lavie, Oron-Gilad and Meyer ; Molich et al. Lavie, Oron-Gilad and Meyer ; Roberts et al. Though there are guidelines and criteria for evaluating websites, Ball has developed criteria specifically to evaluate e-dictionaries; see also Ball and Bothma for a summarised version.

This set of criteria takes into consideration standard usability issues, but incorporates aspects from lexicography and developments in information technology. The main criteria are based on issues relating to content, information architecture, navigation, access searching and browsing , help, customization and the use of innovative technologies to manage data in e-dictionaries for search and display.

Description of the Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek. The Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek is a prototype e-dictionary of Afrikaans fixed expressions and contains a subset of fixed expressions of the Afrikaans language. This e-dictionary was developed with the intention to test certain theories and the functionality of the e-dictionary and as such, visual design and aesthetics were purposefully ignored.

The design of this dictionary is based on the function theory of lexicography and presents several dictionaries that are created from one large database Bergenholtz, Bothma and Gouws The different dictionaries are monofunctional and provide data that are relevant to specific situations.

There are 15 fields for each expression in the database and different fields are presented in each dictionary. The five different dictionaries are based on different functions and are listed below. Figure 1 shows the homepage of the Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek and the five functions are given underneath the basic search field.

Figure 2 shows the basic data for the expression kabaal opskop go through the roof function 1 which includes the following fields: expression, meaning, style and related expressions in English. Figure 3 shows all the data for this expression function 4 and includes all the fields in the database that may be of interest to a user fields for the editor's usage are not displayed. The e-dictionary also makes use of various technologies such as advanced search and display options, browsing, multimedia in various articles, links to external sources that provide more data and customisation options.

Each of these will be discussed below. The advanced search and display options in the Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek are shown in Figure 4. This allows a person to specify exactly in which fields in the database to search and exactly which fields to display in the article. A person can for example, choose to search for an expression with a certain meaning e.

The ability to browse through the expressions in the Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek is shown in Figure 6. An example of an image multimedia that has been added to an article is shown in Figure 7. A person can follow a link to an external source to see the context in which an example sentence has been used, see Figure 8. The Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek allows customisation in the sense that a user can save a selection of search and display fields and so create a custom dictionary specific to that user's requirements.

Figure 9 shows where a selection has been saved. Figure 10 shows how this saved selection can be loaded and a different search can be done with the options that have been saved.

The technologies in the Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek discussed above enables a person to get only information that is relevant to a specific situation. Usability evaluation can show whether the technologies incorporated in this e-dictionary are indeed used successfully.

The usability of the Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek was evaluated through a heuristic evaluation and usability tests. Heuristic evaluation is when experts evaluate a system according to a set of criteria Nielsen ; Schneiderman and Plaisant Criteria to evaluate e-dictionaries were developed by Ball and were used to do an evaluation on the Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek; a summary of the criteria is available in Ball and Bothma The heuristic evaluation of the Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek involved one expert and was done during the week of 11 to 15 April and completed on 10 May Usability testing is a method where participants are asked to complete several tasks to determine whether a product can be used successfully Molich and Dumas ; Preece, Rogers and Sharp The participants are observed and can be recorded Krug ; Preece, Rogers and Sharp One method that is often used in usability testing is the think-aloud method.

Participants are encouraged to articulate their thoughts whilst performing the tasks to give the researchers insight into their actions Shneiderman and Plaisant Seven participants took part in the usability testing of the Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek that was done from 16 April to 4 May The participants were selected by purposive sampling, and people with fairly similar demographics, backgrounds and experiences were chosen. Though the discount usability theory discussed earlier indicates that good results can be obtained from using few participants, the researchers recognise that a bigger sample would probably point out more issues.

However, it was considered that seven participants would be sufficient for a first evaluation, also considering that a prototype was being evaluated.

The evaluation of a final product could consider using more participants. The participants were met at locations that suited the participants. Though the tests were conducted in a laboratory type environment office, study, etc.

Each of the 16 tasks that the participants had to do contained a scenario that described a real information need. During the tests the participants were observed by a researcher and recorded. The participants themselves were recorded by a standalone camera and the computer screen was recorded using the screen capturing software, BB FlashBack Express.

This software allowed for the participant to be recorded with the computer's webcam and the screen to be recorded at the same time. After completing the tasks, each participant was asked to complete a questionnaire with 35 questions, including both open- and close-ended questions. Both the tasks and questionnaire were designed to evaluate the e-dictionary according to the criteria for e-dictionaries.

The 16 tasks are listed in the table below. The tasks listed here are translated from the original that was given to the users in Afrikaans. The purpose of the task is given in an additional column. The tasks are listed here as the discussion that follows refers to specific tasks.


Leer Afrikaans: 300+ Diere-Idiome en Uitdrukkings

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Afrikaanse idiome met hul verklarings. Klik op skakel vir die afdeling van jou keuse:. Afdeling 2 [ E — J ]. Lelike eendjie — vaal meisietjie wat min belofte toon en tog uiteindelik baie mooi is wanneer sy groot is. Besin eer jy begin — dink voordat jy met iets begin. Die eeu van die masjien, die atoom, kernkrag, die ruimtevaart — die tydperk van Die elmboog gelig deur die wingerd geloop, tiermelk gedrink — te veel gedrink.

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