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Celia Kerslake at the University of Oxford, Cantemir, Histoire de I'Empire Ottoman, oil se voyent les causes de son aggrandissement et de sa decadence Paris, , vol. Translation in appendix. Kafadar eds , Suleyman the Second and his Time Istanbul, , pp. Kafadar, "The Myth of the Golden Age", p. Throughout the latter decades of the twentieth century countless studies and events have crowded together to characterise the 'Tulip Age' as the point of origin of trends close to the heart of many citizens of the Republic of Turkey: modernisation and Westernisation.
Such a way of looking at the past has even entered the general Turkish perception of the development of 'Ottoman-Turkish' history. The idea of a growing interaction with the West during the early eighteenth century is of such a persuasive nature that, for example, the financial institution Akbank did not hesitate to link the term 'Tulip Age' with its series of concerts and events celebrating Johann Sebastian Bach in In a rather ingenious manner the cultural events manager of Akbank employed the occasion of a week-long series of orchestral concerts of Bach's works to insinuate the long-standing connections between Turkish culture and European music, even calling the whole event Bach, caz ve LALE DEVRI ['Bach, Jazz and the Tulip Age'].
The events also included a panel discussion on the topic of the Ottomans facing West during the first half of the eighteenth century. A Teleological Agenda 3 abroad either. In February the Turkish Embassy in London organised an event that saw the academic Talat Halman and the stage actress Yildiz Renter present a lecture in Oxford, introducing Turkish culture and history to a wider audience.
The idea that the reign of Ahmed III witnessed a break with Ottoman tradition also seems to have taken root in the West, as illustrated by the case of the prestigious Encyclopedia of Islam.
Harold Bowen, in his entry on "Ahmad III" , claims that "the twelve years ensuing on the peace of Passarovitz  witnessed a remarkable change of taste in poetry, music and architecture and a new inclination to profit by European example".
Melikoff, "Lale Devri", in Encyclopedia of Islam, new ed. A Teleological Agenda 4 the eighteenth century has recently received a great deal of critical attention from a number of different scholars within different disciplines, such as Miige Gocek, Kemal Silay, Tiilay Artan, and Virginia Aksan, the paradigm of the Tulip Age' remains unchallenged.
In a Turkish context one could argue that Tank Zafer Tunaya's endorsement of the idea of a Westernist Tulip Age', in some measure, must bear responsibility. Tunaya was a renowned and well-respected historian of the various political and ideological movements in Turkey.
On an international level, however, it would seem that Bernard Lewis and Niyazi Berkes acted as the writers to have established the Tulip Age' as an 11 S. Hilav, "Dusunee Tarihi ", in S. Aksin ed. Istanbul, , p. Tunaya, Turkiyenin Siyasi, p. A Yeleological Agenda 5 important turning point in Turkish history. Ahmet Evin's article 'The Tulip Age and Definitions of 'Westernization'published in , encapsulates the various strands of the paradigm. This recognition of the presence of a pleasure-minded attitude in early eighteenth-century Istanbul subsequently leads champions of the 'Tulip Age' to postulate that contemporary European modes of architecture and garden layout were introduced as a backdrop for the then popular stress on entertainment.
Evin, for instance, states that "[a]long with French architecture, the [Fjrench garden also appeared in Turkey" during Damad B. Evin, "The Tulip Age", p. A Teleological Agenda 6 Ibrahim's saddret. As a result, another layer of the meaning of the Tulip Age5 seems to be that with the visual culture of the West, European ideas and habits entered the Ottoman Empire as well.
The champions of the 'Tulip Age' also seem to indicate the presence of an attempt at structured Westernisation during the 'Tulip Age'. Evin, for example, talks about an "interest in secular learning" as being prevalent at the time. In Miige Gocek summarised the implications of the paradigm of the 'Tulip Age' as follows: [During the Tulip Age'] [a] new type of Ottoman emerged, oriented toward the West and assimilating Western culture.
The conservative-progressive tension that gradually eroded the Empire at the very end was established. Melikoff, "Lale Devri", p. Gocek, East encounters West. A Teleological Agenda 7 The implications of the phrase 'Tulip Age5 have continued to be accepted a priori. Martin Strohmeier, writing in the s in his critical appraisal of Turkish historiography on the Seljuks, for instance, is also unable to resist the idea of a Tulip Age', stating that prior to Damad Ibrahim's saddret ["die Tulpenzeit"], the Empire's population had been isolated from 'developments' beyond the Ottoman borders.
He then maintains that during the Tulip Age' a certain privileged section of Ottoman society had become subject to outside influences, leading to a 4Europeanisation of their life-styles'. Strohmeier, Seldschuldsche Geschichte and turldsche Geschichtswissenschaft. Die Seldschuken im Urteil modemer tiirkischer Historiker Berlin, , p. Neumann, Arag Tarih, Amag Tanzimat. Tarih-i Cevdet 'in Siyasi Anlami Istanbul, , p.
Quataert ed. A Teleological Agenda 8 on French plans", and describing the narrative of the latter part of Ahmed Ill's reign "as a cautionary tale of the perils of precocious modernization. At the time he was a well-respected member of the government-sponsored historical society Tarih-i Osmani Encumeni [TOE], founded on 27 November Ahmed Refik himself recalls his trip to Paris in a piece he wrote on the French historian Ernest Lavisse , which first appeared in the daily Ikdam on 16 November Salzman, "The Age of Tulips", pp.
II, p. The piece was reprinted together with articles on the historians Jules Michelet and Albert Vandal Ahmed Refik, Fransiz Muverrihleri. Vandal Istanbul, , pp. His most well-known work is the literary history Resimli Turk Edebiyati Taiihi But he also proved to be a prolific contributor to such periodical as Altiok, Or him, Otuken, Atsiz and Ulkii. These writings brought Jacob Landau to characterise this conservative figure as a Pan-Turkist sympathiser, in particular refering to the article "Buyuk Ulkuler ve Kiiciik tdealistler" in Orhun, 11, 1 November , in his well-known study of the phenomenon of Turanism or Pan-Turkism.
Landau, Pan-Turkism in Turkey, p. Ahmed Refik furnished his text with 58 33 footnotes, 39 references to Ottoman and 20 to non-Ottoman sources. Another Ottoman source used by the historian is the biographical compilation executed by Tayyarzade Ahmed Ata 36 c. The non-Ottoman sources are firstly a work composed by the 32 N. Suner Pekin ed. Refik, hale Devri , 1st ed. The book shall henceforth be referred to as Ldle. Tarih-i Rdsid, 2nd ed. Heller also called the book simply "Soubhi".
This could mean that the Ottoman historian had possibly not consulted the Ottoman text, but simply referred to Hammer's interpretation of the original text. XIV : J. The identity of this source seems to be problematic. De Bonac had composed a Memoire pour servir a dresser une histoire de VAmbassade et des Amhassadeurs de France, aupres des Grands Seigneurs, which was continued in by the Comte de Saint- Priest In the late nineteenth century the French Orientalist Charles 37 Schefer edited this text.
Ahmed Refik also makes references to a number of letters written by the ambassador De Bonac to his government in Paris. Another attempt to provide a contemporary voice to the events described was found by the historian in Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Letters.
Ahmed Refik also made use of the French historian Vincent Mignot c. For reasons which shall be discussed below greater importance should possibly be ascribed to nineteenth-century French historians used by Ahmed Refik, Auguste Boppe and particularly Albert Vandal Ahmed Refik's narrative contains of a radical reinterpretation of Damad ibrahim's role in Ottoman history. In early twentieth- century Ottoman Turkey the perception of Damad Ibrahim was predicated on the negative verdict pronounced by the Tarih-i Cevdet in the previous century.
Schefer Amsterdam, In the early twentieth century Ahmed Cevdet's condemnatory words were repeated by the journalist and writer Ahmed Rasim , in his engaging four-volume Osmanh Tarihi. Even though his object seems to have been to construct an image of progress and technical innovation under the heading Lcile Devri, he could not ignore the historical evidence concerning the ubiquity of tulips and other entertainments in the 's.
But this did not detract him from championing the cause of Damad Ibrahim as an innovator. The Cevdet dealt with the development of Ottoman history prior to the conclusion of the Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca in twelve separate entries ["makale"].
The seventh and eighth entries contained appraisals of Damad Ibrahim's tenure as Sadr-i Azam. Tarih-i Cevdet, vol.
Aktepe istanbul, Rasim, Osmanh Tarihi, vol. Tayyarzade Ahmed Ata's entry on Damad ibrahim, on the other hand, proved more advantageous in this respect. The addition compiled by Dilaverzade Omer Efendi d. Freiburg, , [II] pp. Hadikat ul-Vuzera, [II], pp. The information on Damad ibrahim can be found in the second volume [vol.
Lale Devri by Ahmet Refik
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