The transfer ended decades of dispute, but residents say they still feel conflicted. Many still feel Nigerian. The Nigerian national anthem being sung at a meeting of Nigerian businessmen in Kombo Abedimo serves as a fitting illustration of the identity crisis still affecting the Bakassi peninsula. Nigeria officially handed Bakassi over to Cameroon in About 30 percent of residents have since taken Cameroonian nationality, according to the government. But even they say they still feel Nigerian.
|Published (Last):||24 October 2014|
|PDF File Size:||8.24 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||15.22 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
The Bakassi conflict is an ongoing insurgency over the Bakassi Peninsula. In , after the independence of both Cameroon and Nigeria the Cameroon-Nigeria border between them was not settled and there were territorial disputes.
The Nigerian government claimed the border as theirs due to British victory in the Kamerun Campaign. On the other hand, Cameroon claimed the border laid down by the British—German agreements. The border dispute worsened in the s and s after some border incidents occurred, which almost caused a war between the two countries. Eight years later the ICJ ruled in Cameroon's favour and confirmed the border made by the British and Germans as the international border between the two countries.
Nigeria confirmed it would transfer Bakassi to Cameroon. In June , Nigeria signed the Greentree Agreement , which marked the formal transfer of authority in the region, and the Nigerian Army partly withdrew from Bakassi.
The move was opposed by many Bakassians who considered themselves Nigerians and they started to arm themselves on 2 July Two years later the Nigerian Army fully withdrew from the peninsula and it transitioned to Cameroonian control.
More than 50 people were killed between the start of the conflict and the full withdrawal of the Nigerians. The conflict largely ended on 25 September with an amnesty deal. Since then sporadic clashes have occurred in Bakassi.
After the independence of both Nigeria and Cameroon in ,   the status of British Cameroons was unclear. A United Nations-sponsored and supervised plebiscite took place the following February resulting in the northern part of the territory voting to remain part of Nigeria, while the southern part voted for reunification with Cameroon. One of the resultant disputes was in the Bakassi Peninsula, an area with large oil and gas reserves,  which had been de facto administered by Nigeria.
Cameroon claimed that the British—German border agreements in should demarcate the border between the two countries. Mohammed's government never ratified the agreement, while Cameroon regarded it as being in force. In the s tensions rose at the border; with the two countries nearly going to war on 16 May , when five Nigerian soldiers were killed during border clashes. Nigeria claimed that Cameroonian soldiers fired first on the Nigerian patrol. Cameroon claimed Nigerian soldiers opened fire against a Cameroonian vessel close to Bakassi  and that Nigeria violated international law in Cameroon's territory.
A couple of months later Nigeria claimed that Cameroon was annexing nine fishing settlements on the peninsula. The following July the Nigerians occupied the town of Kontcha. The Nigerian Army made veiled threats that it would occupy some areas around Lake Chad. Soon thereafter Nigeria accused the Cameroonian Army of having launched incursions into Bakassi and in response sent —1, soldiers to protect its citizens on the peninsula in December.
On 17 February , the Nigeria-occupied territory close to Lake Chad received 3, refugees from the village of Karena after they fled from a violent crackdown by the Cameroonians. During the crackdown 55 people were burnt alive; 90 others were wounded and parts of the village were torched as well. Soon after another incident was reported close to the Cameroon—Nigeria frontier; Cameroonian gendarmes attacked the village of Abana in Cross River State over the border, killing 6 people and sinking 14 fishing boats.
France stated that it had stationed two helicopters and fifteen paratroopers in Cameroon, but had not deployed to the peninsula. Between late and early French forces established a military base close to the disputed territory. The fighting between to is believed to have claimed 70 lives. In , the Cameroonian Army suffered two killed and eleven missing in what was described at the time as a pirate attack.
They had to choose between giving up their Nigerian nationality; keeping it and being treated as foreign nationals;  or leaving the peninsula and moving to Nigeria. On 12 June , Nigeria and Cameroon signed the Greentree Agreement , allowing Nigeria to keep its civil administration in Bakassi for another two years.
The Nigerian Army agreed to withdraw at least 3, soldiers  within 60 days. They used pirate tactics in their struggle: attacking ships, kidnapping sailors and carrying out seaborne raids on targets as far away as Limbe and Douala.
Clashes occurred in the region between suspected Nigerian soldiers and Cameroon soldiers on 13 November , in which 21 Cameroonian soldiers died. Nigeria denied involvement in the clashes and claimed its soldiers were also attacked by an unknown armed group; it also claimed none of its soldiers were killed. The region was beset by both Nigerian criminals and rebels;  and a previously unknown rebel group called the Liberators of the Southern Cameroon claimed responsibility for some killings.
On 14 August Cameroon assumed complete control of Bakassi. The BFF refused to surrender; joining forces with militants in the Niger Delta , they declared that they would destroy the local economy. On the 16th they captured two Cameroonians. This angered many Nigerians and prompted the Nigerian government to threaten military intervention. This intervention never materialised. After the agreement, many residents had problems with establishing the recognition of their nationalities in both countries.
A lack of identification documents made a number of Nigerians  at risk of becoming stateless, after the ceding of Bakassi. According to the academic Agbor Beckly the Cameroonian police want them to leave. Since September more than a third of the local Nigerian population has fled to Nigeria. By , a major rebellion had broken out in the Cameroon's Anglophone territories which included Bakassi. According to the state government, Cameroonian soldiers subsequently moved into Abana and arrested 15 people suspected of having participated in the killings.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Location of the Bakassi Peninsula in Africa. See also: Cameroon—Nigeria border. See also: Anglophone Crisis.
Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 25 October TRT World. Archived from the original on 25 October BBC News. Archived from the original on 2 June Uppsala Conflict Data Program. Archived from the original on 26 October Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 17 November VOA News. Archived from the original on 15 July This Day Online. Archived from the original on 13 August Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 12 January Up Station Mountain Club. Archived from the original on 17 May Sahara Reporters.
Archived from the original on 6 November Archived from the original on 1 September Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 29 August Retrieved 28 November Jeune Afrique in French. Archived from the original on 2 October Retrieved 31 October Journal du Cameroun. Archived from the original on 12 August Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 7 November Archived from the original on 8 May Hidden categories: CS1 French-language sources fr Pages with login required references or sources Good articles Use dmy dates from November Pages using deprecated image syntax Coordinates not on Wikidata CS1 errors: missing periodical.
Part of the conflict in the Niger Delta and the piracy in the Gulf of Guinea. The Bakassi Peninsula in the Bight of Bonny. Low-level conflict ongoing An amnesty deal was established with some of the rebels.
BFF and militants from the Niger Delta continue the fight. Nigerian Armed Forces.
Obasanjo was also faced with resolving an ongoing border dispute with neighbouring Cameroon that included the question of which country had rights to the Bakassi Peninsula , an oil-rich area to which both countries had strong cultural ties. Under the terms of a International Court of Justice ruling, the region was awarded to Cameroon, and Obasanjo was criticized by the international community when Nigeria did not immediately comply by withdrawing its troops from the area in the subsequent years. He also received much domestic criticism for contemplating withdrawal from the peninsula by those who questioned the fate of the large number of Nigerians living in the region and cited the long-standing cultural ties between the Bakassi Peninsula and Nigeria. Nevertheless, Obasanjo eventually honoured the terms of the ruling in when Nigeria relinquished its claim to the peninsula and withdrew its forces. The process of transferring the peninsula to Cameroon was not without its problems, including the ongoing issue of resettling Nigerians displaced by the transfer and the dissatisfaction of those who remained but were now under Cameroonian rule. Meanwhile, Obasanjo was the subject of domestic and international criticism for his attempt to amend the constitution to allow him to stand for a third term as president; the proposed amendment was rejected by the Senate in He was declared the winner, but international observers strongly condemned the election as being marred by voting irregularities and fraud.
Cameroon forces 'kill 97 Nigerian fishermen' in Bakassi
The Bakassi conflict is an ongoing insurgency over the Bakassi Peninsula. In , after the independence of both Cameroon and Nigeria the Cameroon-Nigeria border between them was not settled and there were territorial disputes. The Nigerian government claimed the border as theirs due to British victory in the Kamerun Campaign. On the other hand, Cameroon claimed the border laid down by the British—German agreements. The border dispute worsened in the s and s after some border incidents occurred, which almost caused a war between the two countries.