The origins of this game are not well known; it is assumed that it originated from the game Schafkopf. Schafkopf however is still the preferred trick-taking variant in Bavaria. As with Skat , there are numerous variants; unlike Skat, Doppelkopf has no "official" rule set. Although the German Doppelkopf Association Deutscher Doppelkopf-Verband has developed standard rules for tournaments, informal sessions are often played with many variants and players adopt their own house rules. Before playing with a new group of players, it is therefore advisable to agree on a specific set of rules before the first game.
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The origins of this game are not well known; it is assumed that it originated from the game Schafkopf. Schafkopf however is still the preferred trick-taking variant in Bavaria. As with Skat , there are numerous variants; unlike Skat, Doppelkopf has no "official" rule set. Although the German Doppelkopf Association Deutscher Doppelkopf-Verband has developed standard rules for tournaments, informal sessions are often played with many variants and players adopt their own house rules.
Before playing with a new group of players, it is therefore advisable to agree on a specific set of rules before the first game. Doppelkopf is a team game where each team normally consists of two players.
The most distinguishing feature of the game is that, as in Schafkopf , the actual pairing is not known from the start, which is what makes the game interesting for most players.
Thus each card exists twice in the deck hence the name Doppelkopf resulting in a total number of points. In the ensuing description, the more common card version is assumed. The rules for the card variant are the same, the only difference is that the Nines are removed. In every game, there are two parties, called Re and Kontra. To win, the Re team normally has to achieve points or more; Kontra wins when Re fails to do so. Each player is dealt twelve cards, or ten in the card variant.
After the cards are dealt, the kind of game is determined. In non-tournament play, it is assumed that a normal game will be played and any player desiring a different game simply says so.
In tournament games, a more complicated method is used to prevent players from gaining information about their opponents' hands.
The types of contract that can be played only differ in which cards are considered trumps. When a player declares a game other than the normal game, s he alone is Re and has to play against the other three players who form Kontra. These non-standard games are, therefore, called Solo games. In these games, the actual teams are not known from the start. The player to the left of the dealer, forehand , leads to the first trick; the other players follow in a clockwise direction.
Each player must follow suit, that is, play a card of the led suit. If he is unable to do so, he can play a trump or any other card. The player playing the highest trump or the highest card in the led suit wins the trick and leads to the next trick.
Since each card exists twice, there is the possibility of a tie; in that case, the first-played card wins the trick. During the first trick, each player may make announcements which increase the value of the game. After all the cards have been played, the point values card points of the tricks are counted and each player in the winning team gets the game value game points added to his score, while the losing players have that value deducted.
This is sometimes referred to as the auction or as bidding in some variants - when this is referred to as bidding the section below on bidding is referred to as announcements. If one or more players have said "Special", they each in turn say what type of game they wish to play. Whoever has the highest ranking "Special" plays their game the first player in bidding order winning in case of a draw. The Ten of Hearts often called the Dulle is the highest trump in every normal game as well as any Suit Solo.
Except for Hearts solo, there are actually more trumps than non-trump cards. One noteworthy result of this rule is that there are only six non-trump cards left in Hearts, making this suit more likely to be trumped in the first trick it is played.
The normal game in a version suitable for children and beginners was released in under the name Doublehead Kids in cooperation with the German Doppelkopf Association. When a player has both Queens of Clubs or Obers of Acorns, he usually declares "Marriage" Hochzeit and will form a partnership, the Re team, with the first other player to win a trick.
Apart from this, the game is played like the normal game. If, however, the player who declares "Marriage", makes the first three tricks, he will instead play a Diamond Solo game against the other players. The player can also decide not to announce Marriage, in which case he plays a silent Solo stilles Solo.
This is played like a normal Diamond Solo; the only difference being that the other players do not know from the start they are playing against a Solo. Apart from this, the game is scored like a normal Solo times 3 for soloist, normal for all others. A player can, if he wants to, announce a Solo game. These games change the status of trump cards; the player also must play against the other three players. He will get thrice game value added or subtracted from his scoreboard in case of a win or a loss.
During play, a player may make announcements claiming that his team will succeed in achieving a specific goal. These announcements increase the game value regardless of whether they are fulfilled. If a team fails to accomplish the self-given goal, it has automatically lost. Apart from increasing the game value, the bids fulfill the role of clarifying which side a player who makes them belongs to.
Each of the following announcements can only be made after Re or Kontra. If, for example, Re was said and a player of the Kontra team wants to make an announcement, he also has to announce Kontra. If Re was announced by one player and his partner wants to make an additional announcement, he also has to identify himself as being on the Re team before being able to do so. Every bid may be countered by "Kontra" resp. For example, if the Re-Party announces "Re, no 60", a reply of "Kontra" simply claims Kontra will score 60 points.
A player that has, for example, announced "Re", but not "no 90", may not announce "no 60" with 9 cards left, because the implied "no 90" would not be legal. When, in the case of a Marriage, the partner is found with the second third trick, all players need to hold one card two cards less than in a normal game in order to make their announcements. Also, it is not allowed to make an announcement before a partner has been found.
The official rules distinguish between "Ansagen" announcements and "Absagen" lit. There, an initial "Re" or "Kontra" is a "Ansage", and all other announcements "keine After all cards are played, each team counts the points of their tricks since the total sum of points always is , in theory only one team has to count; letting both parties count serves as verification. The game value is calculated as follows:.
Unless a solo is played, the following additional score points can be made during the game, which affect the game value. There are no extra points in a solo game, not even in a silent Solo when a Marriage is not announced. If a team's Ace of Diamonds, known as the Fox Fuchs , is won by the opposing team, the opposing team scores an extra point. A trick containing 40 or more points 4 Volle, i.
The game value is added to the score of each player in the winning team, and subtracted for the losing team. If the game was a solo game, the soloist gets thrice the game value added or subtracted. Suggested tactics shown here come from the Pagat website. The first of equal cards wins rule makes it important to lead your ace of a non-trump suit before an opponent can lead theirs, as the second round is almost certain to be trumped - there are only 8 cards in a suit 6 in hearts. Avoid leading a second round of hearts, because of the danger of giving a ruff and discard to the opponents, since there are only six cards in the suit.
If you are trumping in, and there is a possibility of being overtrumped, trump with at least a Jack so that the fourth player cannot win with a Fox or 10 of trumps.
Similarly, if trumps are led then if you are the last player of your team to play to the trick, with one or both opponents after you, play a Jack or higher if no high card has been played so far.
It is important that you announce Re or Kontra if things seem to be going well, not only to increase the score for the game but also so that you can announce no 90 if things continue to go well. Announcing Re or Kontra earlier than you need to, for example on your first play rather than your second, this indicates a possession of additional strength similar in concept to jump bidding in Contract Bridge. If on the opening lead the fourth player says Re or Kontra before second hand plays, this indicates that they are going to trump the lead and want their partner to put a valuable card on it.
When considering a Solo, the initial lead is a big advantage. Trump Solos require a much stronger hand than you think For an Ace Solo, a five card suit to A A 10 will normally capture over 60 points. For a Queen or Jack Solo 4 trumps are sufficient with a reasonable number of Aces. It can be very rash gambling 1 extra point against the possible loss of the whole game. It is highly likely that a player will not get a hand warranting a solo bid during the session.
A compulsory solo, particularly towards the end, should almost always have Kontra said if declarer does not say Re to increase the game value when the soloist loses. A person with three or fewer trumps can say "Special" Vorbehalt and then announce "Poverty" Armut.
A player who wishes to partner preference being given clockwise from the Poverty player - if nobody wishes to partner then the hand is redealt by the same dealer the Poverty player has the right to take these three cards without seeing them first and then discard any three cards, which are returned to the Poverty player.
The returned cards may contain trumps and may include cards originally passed. Many groups remove the nines so that there are 40 cards left. This way, there are no more dummy cards and the balance between trumps and non-trumps is shifted even more towards trumps. Some variants allow the Wedding Hochzeit player to announce a specific kind of trick that must be taken, e. However, this is usually not a good idea since it is in the interest of the Wedding player to find a "strong" partner, e.
It may be agreed that - as the only exception - the second Ten of Hearts is considered higher than the first, if both are played in the same trick. In some variants, this is true for all but the last trick, where the first Ten of Hearts is considered higher.
Playing this variant makes the game less predictable because some conventions such as playing a Ten of Hearts in the first trick by a Re player, or to marry a Wedding player cannot be used anymore. If a player collects 30 points or more in the first trick not counting the tricks needed to determine the partners after a Wedding has been announced , he has to announce either Re or Kontra. This is a 'forced announcement' Pflichtansage. This variation is often played in games "without Nines".
Some players even insist that a further announcement i. This rule is popular among recreational players in order to render the game more dynamic. Losing an Ace of Diamonds to the opposing team in the last trick of the game may lead to two extra points instead of one counted against the team losing the fox. That means, that these cards become the highest trumps in play, outranking the Dullen Tens of Hearts and Alten Queens of Clubs.
It may be played that a Piglet forces the player to an announcement of Kontra or Re. Other variants include the announcement at any point during the game, often breaking the opposing team's bid or the possibility of Super-Piglets, if one holds both Nines of Diamonds.
Doppelkopf lernen - Einleitung
Doppelkopf is extremely popular in Germany, mainly in the North. It developed from a version of Schafkopf using a double pack of cards. Doppelkopf is a four player game with variable partnerships; the objective is to capture valuable cards in tricks. It can be played with five people, with dealer sitting out. Although the Deustcher Doppelkopf-Verband has developed standard rules for tournaments, in informal games there are many variants and each group of players has their own house rules. Before playing with a new group of players, it is therefore advisable to agree a set of rules.
So steht der Doppelkopf heute mit als eines der beliebtesten Spiele im Vordergrund. Das Spiel entwickelte sich aus dem alten Schafkopf, das heute kaum noch gespielt wird, weil es im Vergleich zu den anderen Kartenspielen doch reichlich simpel und zu wenig abwechslungsreich anmutet. Bei dem alten Kartenspiel war das ein Schafkopf und daraus entstand dann der Name. Aus dem "Schafkopf" wurde bei der Verwendung zweier Kartenspiele der "Doppelschafkopf" und mit der Zeit einfach die Bezeichnung "Doppelkopf". Es zu dreien, vielleicht mit einem "Strohmann", zu spielen, hat wenig Sinn, weil diese Spielweise den Sinn der normalen Art verwischt und zuviel Besonderheiten bringt.