Language: English German. The cleaning and disinfection of surfaces in hospitals is becoming increasingly important in the multi-barrier approach for preventing infection, in addition to hand hygiene and proper reprocessing of medical devices. Because of great need for improvements, this monitoring was repeated in The data are presented in comparison to those in Methods: All 16 hospitals provided information on the quality of structure. Data on quality of process was obtained through direct observation during cleaning and disinfection of rooms and their bathrooms.
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Biospherical Instruments offers a variety of small, single-channel radiometers for use in the laboratory; deployment with profilers, CTDs, gliders, floats, and meteorological stations; use in aquaculture and biofuel plants; and for many other marine or terrestrial applications. Monochromatic instruments M-Series measure radiation in a narrow wavelength band, which can be selected from over 25 wavelengths in the UV and visible. Measurement geometries include cosine irradiance , scalar irradiance , and radiance.
Depending on the model, measurements are outputted as either a digital data stream, or as "linear analog" or "logarithmic analog" signals. Please consult Sea-Bird for the proper sensor selection. Q- and M-Series single-channel sensors are available in a large number of configurations.
The following matrix provides an overview of the most commonly available combinations of features, and the associated model numbers. The different options are explained in detail below the matrix. Click on the model numbers for more information! Most sensors are available as analog and digital output models. Additional features and options are available, including specialized spectral sensitivity e. Please contact sales if you cannot find the configuration most suitable for your application.
QSP sensor. QSP sensors are designed to measure scalar irradiance with a PAR response in natural waters to depths of up to 2, m. To be compatible with the QCP series, also two other connector types are available:.
Note that the depth rating of all QSP sensors is 2, m, because the scalar collector can only withstand pressures of less than psi. Download overview brochure for QSP models. Download in-depth brochure for model QSP QSL sensors measure scalar irradiance with a PAR response and are optimized for use in the laboratory. Applications include measurements of scalar PAR in growth chambers, aquaria, or photosynthetrons. The smaller collector is suitable for measurements of PAR in vials or glass bottles with a narrow neck.
Models with the larger collector offer a more uniform directional response. Download in-depth brochure for model QSL QSR with left and without right shield. QSR sensors are surface reference radiometers to measure scalar irradiance from sunlight with a PAR response.
These sensors are often used on ships during on-deck incubations, or while a QSP sensor is vertically profiling, for example, when mounted on a CTD. The photo shows two QSR versions with and without the shield installed. Download overview brochure for QSR models. Download in-depth brochure for model QSR QCP sensor. Depending on model, maximum depths are 2, m, 6, m and 10, m. High-pressure -HP versions have two connector options:.
Download in-depth brochure for model QCP QCR sensor. QCR sensors are surface reference radiometers to measure cosine irradiance from sunlight with a PAR response.
These sensors are weather resistant but not designed for immersion in water. The largest difference is the collector of the sensor: QCR models are optimized for use above water while QCP models are designed for under-water use. A QCP sensor can be used above water, but the "cosine error" of the collector would be relatively large.
Brochures for QCR sensors are currently not avaialble, but most specifications are identical with those of QCP sensors. Download overview brochure for QCP Models. MCP sensor. More than 25 filter wavelengths are available. Download overview brochure for MCP models. MCR sensor. MRP sensors measure monochromatic radiance for underwater profiling applications. These instruments are less common and no brochure is currently available. Contact sales if you are interested in this sensor.
The following list is a subset of specifications. For complete specifications see brochures for each model. Biospherical Instruments Inc. Model dependent Terrestrial 2, m, 6, m, 10, m. Sensors are equipped with a proprietary combination of multilayer interference filters and absorbing glasses to achieve a near-constant quantum response between and nm.
Additional absorbing glass filters are used to further reduce out-of-band response. Maximum depths are 2, m, 6, m and 10, m, depending on model. Digital ASCII output series : the sensor uses a 24 bit analog-to-digital converter with low noise and excellent stability. Sampling rates range from Hz to 1 sample average per hour. Output is provided as a calibrated ASCII text data stream with optional inclusion of sensor temperature.
Linear-analog output series : the sensor features a high-quality, low-drift, electrometer-grade amplifier. A 16 bit or higher analog-to-digital converter is recommended for optimum performance. Normally, SeaWiFS guidelines are used to set the saturating irradiance or radiance values for a sensor, although a wide range of levels is available upon request.
Instead of a voltage output, a "direct-from-the-photodiode" current output is also available. This output configuration is particularly useful for users that acquire their sensor readings through a CTD or other data acquisition system equipped with a limited dynamic range. Multiple Instruments. Multiple digital output series sensors can be connected together with a Biospherical Instruments DSM sensor multiplexer. Multiple sensors may be powered via the same USB port.
Note that the QSP is rated only up to a maximum depth of 2, m because of the scalar collector. The sensor is rated up to maximum depth of 10, m.
Additional Options Additional features and options are available, including specialized spectral sensitivity e. The connector is not designed to be submerged. These sensors are rated for depth up to 2, m. Specifications The following list is a subset of specifications. Spectral Response. Model dependent. Digital binary output. Compressed analog output.
Reconstitution of immune cell interactions in free-standing membranes
The spatiotemporal regulation of signalling proteins at the contacts formed between immune cells and their targets determines how and when immune responses begin and end. Therapeutic control of immune responses therefore relies on thorough elucidation of the molecular processes occurring at these interfaces. However, the detailed investigation of each component's contribution to the formation and regulation of the contact is hampered by the complexities of cell composition and architecture. Moreover, the transient nature of these interactions creates additional challenges, especially in the use of advanced imaging technology.
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