A hemiplegic migraine is a rare form of migraine often confused with a stroke. In this type of migraine, a person may develop neurological symptoms, including weakness on one side of the body. This article explores the symptoms, causes, and treatments for both types of hemiplegic migraine HM. The two distinct types of hemiplegic migraine have slightly different causes, symptoms, and risk factors. This form of HM occurs in families in which there may be a genetic abnormality or mutation that affect certain genes in the brain. These genes affect the communication between parts of the brain called neurons and chemical neurotransmitters.
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This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed.
The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. If you need medical advice, you can look for doctors or other healthcare professionals who have experience with this disease. You may find these specialists through advocacy organizations, clinical trials, or articles published in medical journals. You may also want to contact a university or tertiary medical center in your area, because these centers tend to see more complex cases and have the latest technology and treatments.
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National Institutes of Health. COVID is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Menu Search Home Diseases Familiar or sporadic hemiplegic migraine. You can help advance rare disease research! Title Categories:. Familial hemiplegic migraine. Summary Summary. Symptoms Symptoms. The symptoms and severity can vary considerably among people with hemiplegic migraine. Signs and symptoms associated with aura may include:  Visual disturbance e. Neurologic symptoms can last for hours to days.
Attention and memory loss can last weeks to months. However, permanent motor, sensory, language, or visual symptoms are extremely rare.
Showing of 38 View All. Movement disorder. Unusual movement. Paralysis or weakness of one side of body. Involuntary, rapid, rhythmic eye movements. Excessive, persistent worry and fear. Difficulty finding words. Losing words. Loss of words. Hallucinations of sound. Hearing sounds. Degeneration of cerebellum. Easily confused. Mental disorientation. Double vision. Difficulty articulating speech. Weakness of one side of body.
Paralysis on one side of body. Mental deficiency. Mental retardation. Mental retardation, nonspecific. Intermittent migraine headaches. Migraine headache. Migraine headaches. Extreme sensitivity of the eyes to light. Light hypersensitivity. Dizzy spell. Do you have more information about symptoms of this disease? We want to hear from you. Do you have updated information on this disease?
Cause Cause. There are two types of hemiplegic migraine HM , which are distinguished based on the family history in affected people: familial hemiplegic migraine FHM, in which at least one other close family member has the condition and sporadic hemiplegic migraine SHM, in which there is no family history. The first three of these genes give the body instructions for making proteins involved in moving charged atoms ions across cell membranes. This process is important for for normal signaling between nerve cells neurons in the brain and other parts of the nervous system.
Researchers think that mutations in these genes may upset the balance of ions in neurons, affecting the release and uptake of certain neurotransmitters in the brain. The exact function of the PRRT2 gene is not yet understood but is also thought to play a part in controlling signals between neurons. When the genes involved in FHM do not work correctly, the signaling abnormalities between neurons lead to the development of severe headaches and auras in affected people.
Some people with SHM do inherit a mutation from a parent who has the mutation but is not affected. Many people with SHM do not have a mutation in one of these genes; however, researchers think that mutations in other, unidentified genes are also involved in the condition.
Inheritance Inheritance. It is likely that there are additional types of FHM caused by mutations in other genes. Some cases of SHM are caused by one of the genetic mutations that cause familial hemiplegic migraine FHM , due to either having a new mutation, or from inheriting the condition from a parent with no signs or symptoms.
Diagnosis Diagnosis. Hemiplegic migraine is diagnosed based on the presence of specific signs and symptoms. Genetic testing is not necessary for all affected people. While the criteria requires fully reversible symptoms, it is known that some people with severe attacks may have permanent neurological problems.
A diagnosis of sporadic hemiplegic migraine requires that no first or second degree relative has had attacks that meet the above criteria. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.
Treatment Treatment. In general, treatments aim to manage symptoms. Drugs that are effective in the prevention of common migraines may be used in hemiplegic migraine. Examples of migraine drugs that have been tried with variable success in people with hemiplegic migraine, include oral verapamil, acetazolamide, lamotrigine.
Find a Specialist Find a Specialist. Healthcare Resources To find a medical professional who specializes in genetics, you can ask your doctor for a referral or you can search for one yourself.
Research Research. Clinical Research Resources ClinicalTrials. Click on the link to go to ClinicalTrials. We strongly recommend that you talk with a trusted healthcare provider before choosing to participate in any clinical study. Organizations Organizations. Organizations Supporting this Disease.
This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources.
The word hemiplegic simply means paralysis on one side of the body. A person with hemiplegic migraine will experience a temporary weakness on one side of their body as part of their migraine attack. This can involve the face, arm or leg and be accompanied by numbness, or pins and needles. The person may experience speech difficulties, vision problems or confusion. This can be a frightening experience for the individual as these symptoms are similar to those of a stroke.
What's to know about hemiplegic migraines?
NCBI Bookshelf. Emmady ; Rohan Arora. Emmady 3 ; Rohan Arora 4. Hemiplegic migraine is a rare form of migraine in which the migraine headache attack is accompanied by unilateral weakness. Typically, migraine aura has visual symptoms, but motor symptoms are rare.