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Il compasso geometrico e militare di Galileo Galilei testi, annotazioni e disputa negli scritti di G. Galilei , M. Bernegger e B. Galileo Galilei 's vision of the senses.
Neuroscientists have become increasingly aware of the complexities and subtleties of sensory processing. This applies particularly to the complex elaborations of nerve signals that occur in the sensory circuits, sometimes at the very initial stages of sensory pathways. It will surprise present-day sensory neuroscientists, applying their many modern methods, that the conceptual basis of the contemporary approach to sensory function had been recognized four centuries ago by Galileo Galilei.
In the "Third Day" of the "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei describes the famous experiment of the inclined plane and uses it to bring an experimental confirmation to the laws of uniformly accelerated motion.
We describe a reconstruction of the experiment and how the results can be used for…. Galileo 's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei. Reflections on the senses, and particularly on vision, permeate the writings of Galileo Galilei , one of the main protagonists of the scientific revolution.
This aspect of his work has received scant attention by historians, in spite of its importance for his achievements in astronomy, and also for the significance in the innovative scientific methodology he fostered.
Galileo 's vision pursued a different path from the main stream of the then contemporary studies in the field; these were concerned with the dioptrics and anatomy of the eye, as elaborated mainly by Johannes Kepler and Christoph Scheiner. Galileo was more concerned with the phenomenology rather than with the mechanisms of the visual process. His general interest in the senses was psychological and philosophical; it reflected the fallacies and limits of the senses and the ways in which scientific knowledge of the world could be gathered from potentially deceptive appearances.
Sunspot records in the seventeenth century provide important information on the solar activity before the Maunder minimum, yielding reliable sunspot indices and the solar butterfly diagram. These historical archives do not provide the time of observation, which results in uncertainty in the sunspot coordinates.
To obtain them, we present a method that minimizes the discrepancy between the sunspot latitudes. We provide areas and heliographic coordinates of 82 sunspot groups. In contrast to Sheiner's butterfly diagram, we found only one sunspot group near the Equator. This provides a higher reliability of Galilei 's drawings. Large sunspot groups are found to emerge at the same longitude in the northern hemisphere from 3 May to 21 August, which indicates an active longitude.
The dark side of the Scientific Revolution. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available This contribution investigates a hidden and surely singular — but far from marginal — aspect of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century, in other words the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures.
First of all, this work analyzes the situation immediately before the advent of the fathers of the 17th Century Scientific Revolution like Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton, starting from the Council of Trent. This reconstruction aims to throw light on the particular way that Galileo and Newton intended to approach the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures with respect to the main tendencies of the Catholic Reformation of biblical hermeneutics. Their way is important both in itself and in relation to the Scientific Revolution.
In itself because Galileo and Newton elaborate original theories that are not entirely in agreement with the predominant views and that are decidedly no less interesting than their pure scientific theories. In relation to the Scientific Revolution because the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures is addressed in an original fashion by both Galileo and Newton, also with the intent of facilitating the spread and approval of their own scientific theories in their respective socio-cultural environments.
The Equivalence Principle, formulated by Einstein generalizing Galileo 's and Newton's work, is a fundamental principle of modern physics. As such it should be tested as accurately as possible. Its most direct consequence, namely the Universality of Free Fall, can be tested in space, in a low Earth orbit, the crucial advantage being that the driving signal is about three orders of magnitude stronger than on Earth.
Ground tests of the proposed apparatus now indicate that an accuracy of 1 part in 10 17 is within the reach of this small mission. The stars of Galileo Galilei and the universal knowledge of Athanasius Kircher. In this fascinating book, the author traces the careers, ideas, discoveries, and inventions of two renowned scientists, Athanasius Kircher and Galileo Galilei , one a Jesuit, the other a sincere man of faith whose relations with the Jesuits deteriorated badly.
The GGG differential accelerometer is made of concentric coaxial test cylinders weakly coupled in the horizontal plane and spinning in supercritical regime around their symmetry axis. GGG is built as a full scale ground based prototype for the proposed ' Galileo Galilei -GG' space experiment aiming to test the equivalence principle EP to 10 at room temperature.
We report measured Q values of at 1. An EP violation signal in the field of the Sun would appear as a low frequency displacement in the horizontal plane of the laboratory, and it can be separated out from a much larger whirl motion of the test masses at their natural differential frequency. So far we have managed to reduce the amplitude of this whirl to about 0. A unique feature of GG, which is pivotal to achieve high accuracy at room temperature, is fast rotation in supercritical regime around the symmetry axis of the test cylinders, with very weak coupling in the plane perpendicular to it.
Another unique feature of GG is the possibility to fly 2 concentric pairs of test cylinders, the outer pair being made of the same material for detection of spurious effects. GG was originally designed for an equatorial orbit. The much lower launching cost for higher inclinations has made it worth redesigning the experiment for a sun-synchronous orbit. We report the main conclusions of this study, which confirms the feasibility of the original goal of the mission also at high inclination, and conclude by stressing the significance of the ground based prototype of the apparatus proposed for space.
The enigma of Galileo 's eyesight: some novel observations on Galileo Galilei 's vision and his progression to blindness. Galileo Galilei became blind. Before this happened he revealed that his left eye had always had less than perfect vision. A study of his written works, his handwriting, and the originals of the portraits undertaken during his lifetime indicate that this probably was the case.
These portraits suggest that his left eye tended to lose fixation and that, at the age of 60, he suffered from a mucocoele of the right frontal sinus; but these conditions would not have caused blindness. Considering the systemic diseases from which he suffered over his lifetime, he could possibly have had a long standing uveitis with secondary pupillary block glaucoma, common in those with the group of conditions classified as sero-negative arthropathies.
Posterior scleritis with secondary glaucoma is less likely. If either of these were the cause, then the disease was probably triggered by a well-documented, severe acute illness as a young adult, the inflammation being localized to the eye as a result of severe recurrent conjunctival infections in his youth.
The intermittent nature of the visual loss, the normal appearance of the cornea and pupils in his portraits, the absence of any evidence of inflammatory joint disease, the presence of halos, and the severe nature of the pain-combined with the high level of visual acuity in between attacks and its persistence until the last few weeks of vision means that angle-closure glaucoma must also be considered.
These suggestions might be confirmed or refuted by studying his remains. Application has been made for this to be done. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment.
The rejection of common mode forces. Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer.
We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor. Il dito di Galileo le dieci grandi idee della scienza. Domande e risposte per dieci idee che hanno plasmato il mondo di oggi. Possiamo rintracciare l'origine e il divenire del cosmo?
Che cosa significa l'evoluzione del vivente? Cosa sono quegli elusivi quanti alla base della fisica contemporanea? Siamo sicuri che l'aritmetica non ci inganni?
Peter Atkins offre una guida chiara e completa all'impresa scientifica, seguendo la via indicata dal dito di Galileo. The normal modes. This being within the reach of ground based experiments gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in a low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy.
We report on the progress made with the ' Galileo Galilei on the ground' GGG experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following articles Part I and Part II , we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation-in particular, its normal modes Part I and rejection of common mode effects Part II -can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics.
Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining a quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes and on the whirling behavior.
This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus. Galileo perceptionist. The present paper focuses on Galileo 's conception of perception. I take as my starting point the interpretation of the Galilean text by Piccolino and Wade , Perception 37 : Galileo 's eye: a new vision of the senses in the work of Galileo Galilei. Three points are discussed: the criticism of naive realism, the theoretical role of perceptual laws, and the distinction between different qualities of experience.
The conclusions support an alternative interpretation which underscores the crucial role of phenomenology of perception in Galileo 's epistemology.
Galileo and the Movies. We analyze the character of Galileo Galilei , one of the most famous scientists of all time, as portrayed in three significant movies: Luigi Maggi's Galileo Galilei , Liliana Cavani's Galileo , and Joseph Losey's Galileo , the last one of which was based upon Bertolt Brecht's drama, Das Leben des Galilei We investigate the relationships between the main characteristics of these fictional Galileos and the most important twentieth-century Galilean historiographic models.
We also analyze the veracity of the plots of these three movies and the role that historical and scientific consultants played in producing them. We conclude that connections between these three movies and Galilean historiographic models are far from evident, that other factors deeply influenced the representation of Galileo on the screen.
From Galileo to Newton. The near century — that separates the important astronomical findings of Galileo Galilei — and the vastly influential mathematical work of Sir Isaac Newton — represents a pivotal stage of transition in the history of science.
Tracing the revolution in physics initiated by Galileo and culminating in Newton's achievements, this book surveys the work of Huygens, Leeuwenhoek, Boyle, Descartes, and others. Exploring Galileo 's Telescope. In the first months of , the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei made years ago.
The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…. Galilei -isotopic relativities. In this note we further develop the proposal made in preceding works of constructing the infinite family of Lie-isotopic liftings of Galilei 's relativity for closed-isolated systems of particles possessing local, potential and selfadjoint, as well as nonlocal, nonhamiltonian and non selfadjoint internal forces.
In particular, we show that the nonlinear and nonlocal generalization of the Galilei transformations introduced in a preceding note do indeed represent motion of extended particles within resistive media, but in such a way to coincide with the conventional transformations at the abstract, realization-free level.
This allows the preservation of the basic, physical and mathematical axioms of Galilei 's relativity under our liftings, and their realization in the most general possible nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian way. The giant planets; Galileo Galilei to Project Galileo.
Part 2 Raffaele Pettazzoni and Herbert Jennings Rose, Correspondence 1927–1958
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