Lacazia loboi is an uncultivated fungal pathogen of humans and dolphins that causes cutaneous and subcutaneous infections only in the tropical areas of the Americas. It was recently found by phylogenetic analysis that this unusual pathogen is closely related to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and to the other fungal dimorphic members of the order Onygenales. That original phylogenetic study used universal primers to amplify well-known genes. However, this approach cannot be applied to the study of other proteins.

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Instituto L. The new genus Lacazia P. Taborda, V. Taborda, et McGinnis is proposed to accommodate Lacazia loboi O. Fonseca et Lacaz P.

Taborda, et McGinnis, the obligate pathogen that causes lobomycosis in mammals. The continued placement of that fungus in the genus Paracoccidioides Almeida as Paracoccidioides loboi is taxonomically inappropriate.

Loboa loboi Ciferri et al. In , Jorge Lobo 14 described a previously unknown infection in human cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue. He believed that the etiologic agent 15 was a fungus similar to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Splendore Almeida, in that the fungus consisted of solitary, budding yeast cells and pseudohyphae in tissue. This isolate was described as Glenosporella loboi O. Fonseca f. The current consensus is that this etiologic agent of mycotic infection is an obligate pathogen of humans and other mammals which has not been cultivated in vitro.

In , Fonseca and Lacaz 10 proposed the new species name Paracoccidioides loboi for the etiologic agent of lobomycosis. The proposal included the designation of neotype material in the form of human tissue sections that were distributed to several culture collections and herbaria throughout the world. No single slide was designated as a holotype. The proposed name of the agent was invalidly published, because a Latin description was not included article Based upon our study of the lectotype BPI , U.

National Fungus Collections and tissue sections from 35 patients living in the Amazon region of Brazil, we conclude that no existing genus can accommodate this taxon. We propose a new genus and binomial for the obligate pathogen that causes lobomycosis. Paracoccidioides loboi O. Fonseca et Lacaz 12 synonymous with L.

Fonseca et Lacaz] comb. In vivo, globose to subglobose cells producing blastoconidia connected by a narrow tubular connector, solitary, catenulate, or both, with the latter variable in branching. In vivo, globosae et subglobosae cellulae producentes blastoconidia coniuncta ab angustaligatione in specie tubi, solae, catenulatae vel ambo sed his variabilibus pro summa ramorum. The generic name Lacazia has been selected to acknowledge the major contributions to our understanding of lobomycosis made by Carlos da Silva Lacaz.

Fonseca et Lacaz 12 , illustrated in Fig. Slide BPI in the U. In vivo, globose to subglobose cells producing blastoconidia connected by narrow connectors, cells 7. Catenulate, chains of various lengths and degrees of branching. Constitutive melanin present in yeast cell walls. Cell walls of older cells increase in thickness, resulting in the separation of adjacent cells. Lobo because of his discovery of this mycosis.

We support the disease name lobomycosis accepted by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology Materials containing L.

National Fungus Collections and samples from 35 cases from Instituto L. Materials yielding P. It is clearly recognized that P. The binomial Glenosporella loboi O. Another isolate believed to be the etiologic agent of lobomycosis was described as Glenosporopsis amazonica O. This fungus 18 was most likely an environmental contaminant that is identifiable as Aspergillus penicillioides Spegazzini. Fonseca and Lacaz 10 proposed the new species name P.

Therefore, we designate BPI as lectotypus article 9. Validation of the new species name P. According to recommendation 32C. Such recommendation did not invalidate the specific epithet loboi as suggested by Borelli 4.

Additional confusion resulted when the new generic name and combination Loboa loboi Ciferri, Azevedo, et Carneiro 5 was proposed. This proposal was based upon the culture identified as Glenosporella loboi , a fungus known to be identical with P.

Even though this name is popular, L. In , Langeron and Vanbreuseghem 13 used the name Blastomyces loboi , which is an invalidly described binomial article 32 of reference 11 , as their recommendation for the appropriate name to be used for the causal agent of lobomycosis. In , Borelli 4 proposed the generic name Lobomyces for the fungus in the tissue. This proposal was made as a suggestion in passing and is therefore invalid article 34 of reference The genus Paracoccidioides Almeida 1 is characterized in part by the formation of a globose to subglobose solitary yeast cell that forms a nucleus from which multiple daughter blastoconidia are formed.

The central cells become extremely large with thickened cell walls Fig. In contrast, L. In addition, the cell wall of L. An apparent difference in temperature tolerance in vivo exists between these two species. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Human lung tissue, Gomori methenamine silver stain.

In essence, owing to the fact that L. Lesions of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of humans, marine dolphins Tursiops truncatus Montagu 6 , 20 , and marine-freshwater dolphins Sotalia fluviatilis Gervais 7 are predominantly localized and keloid-like solitary or multiple but can be extensive and either multifocal or diffuse and can combine keloid-like lesions with macular, gummatous, ulcerative, or verrucous surfaces.

Human cases in most Latin American countries have been reported as well as isolated cases in Holland 20 and Bangladesh 19 , although in our opinion, the Bangladesh case may not have been lobomycosis.

Dolphins with lobomycosis have been found along the Florida and Texas coasts 6 , the Spanish-French coast 20 , the South Brazilian coast 16 , and the Suriname river estuary 7. Opromolla and Raul N. Fleury from the ILSL for their encouragement to conduct this research. Lester L. Pasarell is owed special appreciation for his technical help and stimulating discussions. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Journal List J Clin Microbiol v. J Clin Microbiol. Paulo R. Taborda , 1 Valeria A. Taborda , 1 and Michael R. Taborda Instituto L. Valeria A. Michael R. McGinnis Instituto L. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Mailing address: University Blvd.

Phone: Fax: E-mail: ude. This article has been corrected. See J Clin Microbiol. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The new genus Lacazia P. Taxonomy of Lacazia P. Taborda, et McGinnis gen. Taxonomy of Lacazia loboi. Fonseca et Lacaz , comb. Open in a separate window. Lacazia loboi. Human subcutaneous tissue, Gomori methenamine silver stain. Almeida F. An Fac Med Sao Paulo. Almeida F, Lacaz C S. Estudio comparativo de varias cepas de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis y especies afines.

Borelli D. Inst Micol Univ Recife.


Lobomycosis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

Metrics details. Jorge Lobo's disease Lacaziosis is a subcutaneous infection of humans living in the Amazon region of Latin America, and in dolphins inhabiting the east coastal areas of the United States. The disease mainly affects people from rural areas living or working in close contact with vegetation and aquatic environments. Most patients refer having developed lesions after accidental trauma with plant thorns or insect bites. Inter-human transmission has never been confirmed suggesting that Lacazia loboi is acquired from environmental propagules. Because many patients with Jorge Lobo's disease do not recall accidental skin trauma before their infections, the possibility of accidentally acquired Jorge Lobo's disease through unnoticed broken skin should be considered during the clinical investigation of nodular skin diseases in people who have contact with the fungus or who live in endemic areas. This is the second report of animal to human transmission of this disease.


Lacazia is a yeast-like fungus that causes infection in humans and bottle-nosed dolphins Tursiops truncatus. Aqueous environment appears to be mandatory for the life cycle of Loboa. It is saprophytic in water and is transmitted to the vulnerable host via contact. Infections due to Lacazia are mostly reported from tropical zones [ , ]. The genus Lacazia contains a single species, Lacazia loboi. While the name Loboa loboi is still frequently used to refer to the causative agent of lobomycosis, more recently, classification of the fungus in the genus Lacazia and conclusively, the name Lacazia loboi has been proposed by McGinnis et al.


Lobomycosis is a chronic subcutaneous granulomatous disease. Lesions commonly occur in exposed areas: lower and upper limbs, outer ears, face and thorax. Patients often refer having suffered a previous traumatic event at the site of the lesion animal or insect bites, splinter, ray sting. Lesions present initially as a single plaque, papule or nodule that eventually becomes multiple and disseminated. The most common presentation is the keloidal nodule, although verrucous, scar-like, sclerodermaform and ulcerated lesions have been described.

IEC 61029-1 PDF

Adam M. Schaefer, John S. Reif, Esther A. Fair, Peter J. Lobomycosis lacaziosis is a chronic, granulomatous, fungal infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues of humans and dolphins. To date, the causative agent, the yeast-like organism Lacazia loboi , has not been grown in the laboratory, and there have been no recent reports describing attempts to culture the organism.

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