Kidney injury in cirrhosis: pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of hepatorenal syndromes. Liver Int ; Incidence and prognosis of different types of functional renal failure in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatology ; Incidence, predictive factors, and prognosis of the hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis with ascites. Gastroenterology ;
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NCBI Bookshelf. Indika R. Ranasinghe ; Bashar Sharma ; Khalid Bashir. Authors Indika R. Ranasinghe 1 ; Bashar Sharma 2 ; Khalid Bashir 3. It is a cause of acute kidney injury that can be seen in those with acute or chronic liver disease. The first association of renal failure in cirrhosis was observed in the late s. In the mid to late s, further research revealed that renal failure in liver cirrhosis was functional. This was demonstrated in patients with hepatorenal syndrome with normal kidney histology in addition to the absence of proteinuria.
This was further demonstrated clinically when kidneys from patients with HRS were transplanted into those with chronic kidney disease as well as the improvement of renal function in liver cirrhosis patients who underwent a liver transplant. Further research investigating renal clearance established the association of renal vasoconstriction in HRS.
Most commonly, it is caused by Hepatitis B or, less commonly, Hepatitis C. Most of these patients have portal hypertension from alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, or metastatic cancers. The highest risk patients were those with hyponatremia and high plasma renin activity.
One third of patients that have spontenous bacterial pertionitis can go on to develop HRS. The systemic drop in circulating pressure triggers the carotid and aortic arch baroreceptors to activate three separate compensatory mechanisms. These include the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, vasopressin release, and activation of the sympathetic nervous system SNS. The progression of the cirrhosis causes the fall in cardiac output and the fall in systemic vascular resistance in a cycle that induces further renal vasoconstriction.
Patients with hepatorenal syndrome present with signs and symptoms of severe liver failure. These patients initially can present with fatigue and lethargy which can be multifactorial. This may be contributed to by loss of appetite due to increasing nausea. Over time, patients become increasingly more jaundiced, originating in the sclera and then spreading from head-to-toe. The liver's synthetic function becomes affected, and patients become coagulopathic and more likely to bleed.
As all this occurs, there is a very slow, gradual build-up of ascitic fluid in the peritoneum due to the intravascular loss of albumin. Confusion due to hepatic encephalopathy is likely the last and most severe stage of the liver disease as a result of the liver failing to break down toxic metabolites.
Most importantly these patients notice they urinate less frequently in smaller and smaller volumes as they become oliguric. Type 2 typically involves less severe kidney injury, and patients ordinarily present with diuretic-resistant ascites. Other apparent causes of acute kidney injury need to be excluded, including pre-renal, nephrotoxic drugs, obstructive nephropathy, and renal parenchymal disease. In turn, this reduces renal vasoconstriction and improves renal blood flow. This is achieved with several different combinations of medical therapy.
This type of surgical treatment is established with the insertion of an intrahepatic stent to connect the portal vein to the hepatic vein.
The shunt redirects portal blood into the systemic circulation, reducing portal pressure and increasing systemic venous return. Definitive treatment for HRS is established through liver transplantation and provides the best long-term survival benefit. Other experimental techniques such as molecular adsorbent recirculating system, a modified dialysis technique aimed at removing substances causing vasodilation like nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor, and cytokines have not been shown to improve overall survival.
Renal replacement therapy has been tried in patients that do not respond to the vasoconstrictors above or are poor candidates for TIPS.
However, both these therapies may be considered more appropriate as a bridge to transplant. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis should be treated promptly and remain on long-term antibiotic therapy to prevent the development of HRS. Those with sepsis from other sources should also be treated promptly to limit the release of sepsis-related vasoactive mediators. Prognosis for Type 1 HRS is poor, with an average survival of just less than 2 weeks.
Type 2 HRS survival is dependent on the severity of the Child-Pugh class of liver disease, but generally more chronic and median survial was 6 to 12 months without treatment. New thereapeutic appoaches have demonstrated an improvement in survival for patients with HRS Type 1, but these treatment modalities were less clear in HRS Type 2.
In patients with HRS Type 1, paracentesis with albumin replacement had demonstrated a median survival of slightly over 1 year.
Furthermore, in patients recieving TIPS mendian suvival was shown to be extended to almost 20 months. Coordination of risk assessment and management must occur between the nurses, nurse practitioner, physician, and specialists to optimize care in these patients.
To access free multiple choice questions on this topic, click here. This book is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. StatPearls [Internet]. Search term. Hepatorenal Syndrome Indika R. Author Information Authors Indika R. Affiliations 1 Waikato District Health Board.
History and Physical Patients with hepatorenal syndrome present with signs and symptoms of severe liver failure. Complications Renal failure and death. Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes Coordination of risk assessment and management must occur between the nurses, nurse practitioner, physician, and specialists to optimize care in these patients.
Questions To access free multiple choice questions on this topic, click here. References 1. Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Management of Hepatorenal Syndrome. Hepatorenal syndrome. Clin Biochem Rev. Arq Gastroenterol. Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatol Int. Acute-on-chronic liver failure: A new syndrome that will re-classify cirrhosis. Acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis.
Human albumin solution for patients with cirrhosis and acute on chronic liver failure: Beyond simple volume expansion.
World J Hepatol. Glass L, Sharma P. Smith M, Durham J. Evolving Indications for Tips. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. Angeli P. Review article: prognosis of hepatorenal syndrome--has it changed with current practice? Mansour D, McPherson S.
Management of decompensated cirrhosis. Clin Med Lond. Hepatorenal Syndrome. In: StatPearls [Internet]. In this Page. Related information. Similar articles in PubMed. Review Renal failure in patients with cirrhosis: hepatorenal syndrome and renal support strategies. Meltzer J, Brentjens TE. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. Review New Developments in Hepatorenal Syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. Epub Jun 7. Contrib Nephrol.
Epub May Review Acute kidney injury in acute-on-chronic liver failure: where does hepatorenal syndrome fit? Kidney Int. Epub Aug Review [Hepatorenal syndrome: focus]. Nephrol Ther. Epub Jul Recent Activity. Clear Turn Off Turn On. Hepatorenal Syndrome - StatPearls.
2014, Número 2
Hepatorenal syndrome HRS is a manifestation of extreme circulatory dysfunction and entails high morbidity and mortality. A new definition has been recently recommended by the International Club of Ascites, according to which HRS diagnosis relies in serum creatinine changes instead that on a fixed high value. Moreover, new data on urinary biomarkers has been recently published. In this sense, the use of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin seems useful to identify patients with acute tubular necrosis and should be employed in the diagnostic algorithm. Treatment with terlipressin and albumin is the current standard of care. Recent data show that terlipressin in intravenous continuous infusion is better tolerated than intravenous boluses and has the same efficacy. Serum bilirubin and creatinine levels along with the increase in blood pressure and the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome have been identified as predictors of response.
Hepatorenal syndrome: Update on diagnosis and therapy
Hepatorenal syndrome HRS is the development of renal failure in patients with chronic previous liver disease, without clinical or laboratory evidence of previous kidney disease. HRS diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory data. The occurrence of this syndrome is related to the mechanism for ascites development, involving vasoconstriction, low renal perfusion, water and sodium retention, increased plasma volume, and consequent overflow at the splanchnic level. Renal vasoactive mediators like endothelin 1, thromboxane A2, and leukotrienes are also involved in the genesis of this syndrome, which culminates in functional renal insufficiency. Liver function recovery is usually followed by renal failure reversion.